Jet lag, or desynchronosis to give it its proper medical name, is a physiological condition resulting from a disturbance to the body clock when travelling rapidly from one time zone to another. Passengers travelling by ship are less likely to be affected as their body clocks have longer to adjust, but for travellers flying across different time zones it can be a real problem and the further you go the worse the effects are.
How long does Jet Lag last?
It varies from person to person but jet lag usually lasts several days and as a rough guide you can expect the disruption to last one day per time zone crossed. This means that if you are spending a fortnight in New Zealand, you could well spend the majority of your holiday feeling lethargic and not quite with it.
The body’s circadian rhythm (or body clock) is set to our local time so that we feel tired at night, alert in the morning and ready to eat at set times of the day. Travelling east to west or vice versa means that we cross various time zones resulting in us either having difficulty sleeping when we have travelled west to east, or wanting to sleep early in the evening when we have travelled east to west. It is easier to delay our bedtime than make ourselves sleep when we are not tired so, in general, flying east to west is easier to cope with.
Who does it affect?
People who have a very rigid routine for going to bed and getting up in the morning will find it harder to adjust to a different time zone. Conversely babies and young children who are used to falling asleep during the day will find it easier. Jet lag seems to hit the over 60s hard, although the reason for this is not known.
Jet Lag Symptoms
The most common symptom of jet lag is sleep disturbance resulting in feeling generally unwell and lacking in energy, but that is just the tip of the iceberg. The body’s circadian rhythm does not only affect our sleep patterns but many other things too:
- Hunger – you may suffer from loss of appetite
- Temperature – you may sweat or feel cold
- Urine production – you might need to get up during the night to go to the bathroom
- Bowel habits – this can cause constipation or diarrhoea
- Digestion – you may suffer bouts of indigestion or nausea
Jet lag not only causes physical problems but cognitive ones too. These can include:
- Difficulty concentrating
- Feelings of disorientation
- Poor memory
How to get over Jet Lag?
One of the best ways to reset the body clock involves light. Depending on which time zone you have travelled to, there are certain times when you should avoid light and other times when you should try to expose yourself to light (natural if possible but artificial light will do). BA has a handy tool on its website that will advise you what these times are.
Jet lag is not a curable condition, but there are various things that may help you cope with it:
- Don’t have a nap – no matter how tired you are after a long flight it is best to resist the temptation of having a nap when you arrive at your destination.
- Get used to your new routine quickly – your body may be telling you it’s dinner time when you arrive, but establish your new routine for eating and sleeping from the outset.
- Melatonin tablets – melatonin is a hormone produced by our bodies in the evening, preparing our bodies for sleep. Some travellers swear by melatonin supplements as a jet lag remedy. It is licensed in America but not in the UK for this purpose and is not suitable for everyone e.g. those taking the blood-thinning drug Warfarin or those with epilepsy.
There are also steps you can take before landing at your destination that may combat jet lag:
- For a few days before you travel, tweak your bed time to fit in with your destination i.e. go to bed later if you are travelling west and earlier if you are travelling east
- Keep calm because stress can exacerbate jet lag
- Drink plenty of fluids on the flight (limit alcohol and caffeine)
- Finally, if your trip is a short one of just a few days, try to stick as closely as possible to home time and don’t try to adjust to local time.
Jet lag in babies, toddlers and children
Children are also affected by jet lag and this is something parents should take into consideration before leaving. This way, you’ll have a stress free trip! We have come up with 10 tips to help.
- Try to adhere to the local schedule, if it’s dinner time, have some dinner. If it’s time for bed, try to go to bed. This way, you’re getting your child’s body used to the local timezone and they will be able to settle in easier.
- If your child wakes up during the night due to jet lag, try to keep the room dark and quiet. Although the child might not fall asleep instantly, they will eventually fall back to sleep.
- Keep the same sleep routine as you do at home, meaning if your child goes to bed at 8pm, put them to bed at 8pm. This will help their body adjust to Jet Lag quicker.
- Even if you’re having to stay up with the child during the night, try not to sleep in late into the morning. This will be hard to resist but it’s very rewarding in the long run!
- Try to make the environment the same as it would be at home. Pack what you can to make the child feel at home.
- Don’t forget their favourite toy! Be it a teddy, a blanket, and a dummy. Whatever you can do to make the child feel at home, it will help them sleep better. Also, don’t forget to bring spares because the last thing you need is to lose their teddy and not have a replacement!
- Snacks! Bring lots of them as they can lose their appetite for the first day or two so bring their favourite snacks. Try to get them to eat frequently throughout the day.
- Prep your little ones. If they’re old enough to speak and talk, let them know what to expect if they get jet lagged. This will help get them mentally prepared for their trip.
- Pick your flight time carefully! Try to book an afternoon or evening flight so you get a chance to rest before your arrival time. This way you’ll be well-rested to deal with the children’s jet lag.
- Lastly, enjoy your trip! Try not to let this get in the way of your holiday and enjoyment, you can’t plan for everything. So plan what you can but if something unexpected happens, just go with it!